Journal of the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy


Predictive factors for conversion to laparotomy in women undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. A re-evaluation of clinicopathological factors in the era of minimally invasive gynaecology

L. Lamersdorf, M. Tahmasbi Rad, T. Karn, B. Gasimli, A. Bachmann, S. Becker, K. Gasimli

J. W. Goethe-University Frankfurt, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Frankfurt, Germany


Conversion risk, clinical factors, hysterectomy, laparoscopy, laparotomy

Published online: Jun 28 2024


Background: Abdominal hysterectomy has been largely replaced by minimally invasive surgery. Nevertheless, in some situations, a minimally invasive intervention must be converted to laparotomy. Factors associated with conversion to laparotomy are still a matter of debate.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological factors associated with the conversion of laparoscopic hysterectomy to laparotomy.

Material and Methods: The risk factors for conversion of a preplanned laparoscopic procedure to laparotomy were retrospectively evaluated in 441 patients undergoing a hysterectomy for a benign indication between 2016 and 2020. Associations between the clinical factors were analysed using Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact test, and predictive values for conversion were assessed through multivariate logistic regression.

Result: Conversion occurred in 32 (7.3%) of the cases. Significant differences were detected for uterus weight (576.9gr vs 174.6gr, p<0.001), myoma size (7.0 cm vs. 1.8 cm, p<0.001), and presence of triple diagnosis consisting of leiomyoma, adenomyosis uteri, and pathological adnexal findings (p<0.013). The conversion resulted in prolonged surgery time (181.6 min vs. 119.6 min, p<0.001) and hospital stay (4.0 vs. 3.1 days, p<0.001), as well as an increased rate of wound infection (15.6% vs. 3.4%, p<0.001). A 10g increase in uterus weight raised the risk of conversion by 7.0%, and a 1cm increase in myoma diameter by 7.3%, while adnexal pathologies and extensive adhesions increased the odds of conversion to laparotomy threefold (ORs of 3.2, 1.09-9.6 and 3.6, 1.3-10.0, respectively).

Conclusion: Uterus weight, myoma size, the coexistence of pathological adnexal findings, and non-physiological adhesions are independent risk factors for conversion.

What is new? This study provides data regarding the risk and factors increasing this risk for conversion to laparotomy during laparoscopic hysterectomy.