Acute haemoperitoneum caused by endometriosis infiltrating the uterine artery - Two case reports and a literature review
endometriosis, haemoperitoneum, menstruation, uterine artery, withdrawal bleeding
Published online: Sep 24 2021
Objective: We report 2 cases of haemoperitoneum due to a bleeding of the uterine artery caused by infiltrating endometriosis. We have also conducted a literature review on endometriosis-related intra-abdominal haemorrhage and wrote a practical guideline on how this entity can be recognized and handled.
Patients: Case 1: A 49-year-old multiparous woman presented with intense stabbing pain in the lower abdomen during her menstruation. CT angiography showed a bleeding from a side branch of the internal iliac artery. Laparoscopy was performed and an active bleeding from the right uterine artery was confirmed, clearly caused by infiltrating endometriosis lesions. Haemostasis was achieved by bipolar coagulation. Case 2: A 29-year-old nulliparous woman was admitted for observation because of heavy stabbing pain in the right lower quadrant and presence of free fluid on CT abdomen. The day after the admission, laparoscopy was performed because of a decreasing haemoglobin level. An arterial bleeding from the right parametrium was observed, probably originating from the right uterine artery. Histopathological examination of a biopsy of the right parametrium proved the presence of endometriosis. Haemostasis was achieved by bipolar coagulation.
Conclusion: Although endometriosis-related haemoperitoneum is a rare entity, this diagnosis should be considered when a patient presents with an intra-abdominal haemorrhage during menstruation or withdrawal bleeding - especially in case of a history or suspicion of endometriosis. Laparoscopy is the cornerstone of the treatment.